- Dated: probably 3rd quarter of 16th century
- Maker: Ulrich Diefstetter (active between 1555 – 1589)
- Geography: Munich, Germany
- Medium: iron or steel, wood and fish-skin, blackened
- Measurements: overall length 107 cm; width 3.3 cm; weight 1.59 kg
- Inscriptions: the maker’s mark, including the crossed flails of Diefstetter and the shield of Bavaria
The sword has a blackened hilt made up of a cone-shaped pommel of octagonal section. The shouldered grip is made of wood and bound with fish-skin. The long straight, spatulated guard is engraved with feathering at the ends on the left side, while the knuckle-guard, side-ring, pas d’âne, and counter-guards are all riband-like and of triangular section. The single-edge blade (except towards the point) is doubly grooved and stamped with the maker’s work.
This sword probably comes from Schloss Ambras in Tyrol where a considerable number of comparable swords survive. Other examples bearing like marks are to be found in the Armeria Reale, Turin (G 16), at the Hermitage, St. Petersburg (B 402), and at Vienna (Boeheim, Album I, Taf. XI 2). In addition to this swords marked with the crossed flails of Diefstetter and the shield of Bavaria are a hand-and-a half sword in the Pauilhac Collection; one sold at Sotheby’s, 15 August, 1941, lot 19; and another in the Lockett Collection, sold Christie’s, 1942, lot 307.
- The swordsmith Melchior Diefstetter worked at Au near Munich.
- He was the son of Caspar I and is recorded as not being of full age in 1497.
- About 1523 he was recorded with two sons, Georg and Ulrich. He died in or before 1556 and was survived by a widow, Barbara, and eight children still minors.
- One of his other sons, Caspar II, was a swordsmith in Munich by 1537 and died in 1552. His son Ulrich was Bavarian court swordsmith “in der Au”, and is recorded by frequent payments in the Ducal accounts between 1555 and 1589.
- A sword blade inscribed ARIAS PANTMER IN VRI / VLRICH DIEFSTETER IN MANAGI, with the arms of Bavaria and the monk’s head of Munich stamped on it, is in the Schweizerisches Landesmuseum, Zurich (Inv. No. LM27328; Schneider, 1980, No. 183).
- A fourth generation of the family is represented by Arsatius Diefstetter, active 1588-1616, and a fifth by his sons Hans, who died in 1613, and Albrecht, active 1616 to 1630, latterly in Passau. (H. Stocklein, Z.H. W.K., VIII, 1918-20, pp. 371 and 375-82).
- If the blades of this group of swords are contemporary with the hilts, they are probably by Ulrich Diefstetter rather than by Melchior, to whom they are usually attributed as Ulrich Diefstetter also used the mark of crossed flails, often in conjunction with the head of a bull transfixed with an arrow.
A beautiful article on The Toast by Iona Sharma about heritage language learning and decolonization. It’s worth reading the whole thing, but here’s the beginning:
Here are the things you need to know first. I am thirty years old. I am Indian. My parents arrived in Scotland as newly minted immigrants in the eighties, thinking they’d go home after I was born. Decades later, we’re still here.
My parents, grandparents, cousins, aunts and uncles, their friends and their community, speak Hindi as a first or joint first language. I do not. I stopped being a fluent Hindi speaker at the age of six, perhaps earlier. The school didn’t like it. Too confusing to educate a bilingual child. If you don’t speak to her in English at home, she’ll never learn.
Gaelic, sometimes referred to as Scottish Gaelic to differentiate it from Irish and known to its own speakers as Gàidhlig, is a Celtic language spoken by just over 58,000 people. It has been in decline for centuries. Anglicisation, colonisation and the Highland clearances all had a role in destroying its traditional heartlands, driving it to the far northwest of Scotland and the islands. In the nineteenth century schoolchildren were forbidden to use it in the classroom; by the 1970s the last monolingual speakers were gone. To speak Gaelic now is a political act.
I am not very good at languages.
Stunningly beautiful writing from Iona Sharma about belonging, decolonization, and linguistic identity. Unquestionably worth reading the whole thing.
From “chink” to “rice eater” my mom reads – and shuts down – some of the most racist comments I’ve gotten on YouTube
She is my favorite.
omg gunnarollamom ❤
You don’t have enough room? I don’t stay in your house. I have extra room, do you want to stay in my home?
Thank you for making this video, @gunnarolla!
striped icebergs form as meltwater refreezes in crevasses atop glaciers before air bubbles can become trapped in the ice, which is later calved into icebergs, or when supercooled seawater freezes inside cracks beneath an ice shelf, which then becomes visible when the iceberg breaks off and flips.
over time, the weight of accumulated snow contorts and curves these blue bands of ice, as does erosion from waves and wind. dust and volcanic ash falling on the iceberg can darken the ice, while dissolved organic compounds entering from below can shade it towards cyan.
accumulated snow also compresses air bubbles trapped in the iceberg, thus preventing them from otherwise interfering with the passage of light. and because water absorbs photons from the red end of the visible spectrum much better than the blue end, bubble free ice takes on a blue colour.